The VISUAL system is an ideal window into the brain


We need 140 million neurons only for our visual cortex ( visual network)

Hippocampal-Sparing Alzheimer's Goes Dangerously Misdiagnosed

Carotid screening : AI for ultrasound-on-a-chip


As the heart beats, it generates a physical pulse that travels around the body. Healthy, elastic vessels dismish the energy carried by the pulse by cushioning each heartbeat, preventing the pulse from reaching delicate blood vessels in the body. However factors such as ageing and high blood pressure cause stiffening of these blood vessels and may diminisk their protective effect. As a result a progressively stronge pulse can travel deep into the fragile vessels that supply the brain. Over time this can cause damage to the small vessels of the brain and minor bleeds, known as minor strokes, which contribute to the development of dementia. We see often AD and vascular dementia at the same time. Sometimes more, sometimes less. 

Before the first symptoms of Alzheimer's disease appears some alternations in the brain can cause little changes in eye movement patterns, gait patterns, face recognition patterns...AI can recognize these changes early and identify patients at risk of developing the most severe forms of dementia. AI see some changes that humans can't see ( even it's too complex) but can also monitoring the patient and whith these patterns the doctor can follow the progression and efficiency of his treatment or prevention therapy. Also for patients who have already AD doctors can use the device for adjustments. When a doctor or radiologist reads scans from PET,MRI it is impossible wheter a person will progress AD or dementia and his subtypes. AI can also predict the severity of the disease in different patients. For drug companies it is very difficult to identify the wright patient. With computational pathology and pattern recognition technics we can make better diagnosis and less misdiagnosis.



Visual deficits often reported as one of the first symptoms of Alzheimer's disease  include problems with visual attention, visual processing speed, visual field defects, contrast sensitivity, color discrimination, visuospatial processing, and feature recognition of complex objects such as faces.  The differences in the initiation of the neuropathology of the various types of dementia are not well understood, but these differences may be important to the types of treatment required for each specific dementia..

Digital Biomarkers versus Blood based biomarkers early detection AD- Bayes Theorem

Please note that we have asymptomatic or preclinical Alzheimer's patients ( we see no symptoms) and we have symptomatic patients . For symptomatic patients we need another calculation..."Actual Probability" for symptomatic patients is higher... could be 40-50% that means we don't need 3 biomarkers...

Blood based biomarker

Patient 40-50 years old have prediction to develop Alzheimer's disease...based on metabolite from amyloid...

Actual Probability: 20%

Probability True Positive: 80%

Propability False Positive: 20%

Change positive test means positive result 50%

3 digital eye biomarkers

Digital biomarker 1

Actual Probability: 20%

Probability True Positive: 80%

Propability False Positive: 20%

Change positive test means positive result 50%

Digital biomarker 2

Actual Probability: 50%

Probability True Positive: 80%

Propability False Positive: 20%

Change positive test means positive result 80%

Digital biomarker 3

Actual Probability: 80%

Probability True Positive: 80%

Propability False Positive: 20%

Change positive test means positive result 94%

This result make sense with a change positive test means positive results 94%

Neuroteg AI

Centrum Zuid 1111

3530 Houthalen-Helchteren



Skype: guy.bisschops3

A new treatment for Alzheimer's ? It starts With Lifestyle

Carotid ultrasound screening ultrasound  on-a-chip

In 2011, a researcher did a postmortem analysis of 426 Japanese-American residents of Hawaii, about half of whom had been diagnosed with some form of dementia, typically Alzheimer’s. According to the autopsies, roughly half of that group had been misdiagnosed as having Alzheimer’s — their brains didn’t show evidence of the brain lesions typical of the disease. At a 2016 conference, Canadian scientists presented preliminary findings, based on more than 1,000 individuals, that patients were correctly diagnosed only 78 percent of the time. In nearly 11 percent of cases, patients thought to have Alzheimer’s actually didn’t, while another 11 percent did have the disease but weren’t diagnosed.

Accurate diagnosis is needed for Dementia Lewy Body

Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) may account for up to 30% of all dementia cases. The symptoms of DBL can be difficult to disentangle from other dementia subtypes. DLB is characterized by a build-up of abnormal proteins (Lewy bodies) in areas that control cognition, movement, allertness and behavior.

Eye tracking ( saccadic eye movement tracking) and EEG are very sensitive digital biomarkers to make an accurate diagnosis.

AD and DLB pathologies often overlap within individuals. An individual is diagnosed with Parkinson disease dementia ( PDD) or DLB depends on the timing of symptoms onset. In dementia with Lewy Bodies, cognitive decline occurs within one year of the onset of movement disorder symptoms.

DLB is sensivity to antipsychotic drugs. We see also REM behavior disorder. Visual hallucinations and fluctuations in cognition, attention and allertness.

 Mild Cognitive Impairment or MCI

MCI causes a slight but noticeable and measurable decline in cognitive abilities, including memory and thinking skills. Long-term studies suggest that 15-20 percent of the aged 65 and older may have MCI. There is a difference between normal aging cognitive decline and MCI. With all kind of rating scales it is not possible to see any difference.

Biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease can be really measured to indicate the presence or absense of the disease. For AD there is only one biomarker accepted amyloid beta. Preclinical b. amyloid as biomarker is difficult and very expensive to detect and it is only possible in hospitals. Digital biomarkers can be used outside the hospital POC ( in the waiting room or at home).

Blood glucose levels are a biomarker for diabetes and blood cholesterol for heart disease.

Neuroteg AI

Centrum Zuid 1111

3530 Houthalen-Helchteren



Skype: guy.bisschops3

M 0497 219340



These are the most commonly misdiagnosed conditions.

Parkinson’s disease

It is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system with symptoms including tremors in hands, arms or legs, stiff muscles, and problems with balance or walking.

However, it is commonly mistaken for Alzheimer’s disease, stroke, stress, a traumatic head injury and essential tremor.

Grave’s disease

The condition causes an overactive thyroid gland, and is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism.

Symptoms include eyes bulging, anxiety, sweating, rapid pulse, unplanned weight loss or gain, and extreme tiredness.

Without treatment, it can prove life-threatening, however it is often mistaken for depression, ageing and under-exercising.


It is a chronic arthritis-like disorder characterised by widespread pain.

However, symptoms - anxiety, sensitivity to pain and incapacitating fatigue - can be confused with rheumatoid arthritis and chronic fatigue syndrome.

Normal pressure hydrocephalus

It is a build-up of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain that most commonly occurs after a stroke or ahead injury from a fall.

Symptoms of unsteady gait, progressive dementia and urinary problems, can be interpreted as Alzheimer’s disease or Parkinson’s disease.

Multiple Sclerosis

The progressive autoimmune disease that attacks the central nervous system has symptoms including muscle spasms, lack of coordination, balance problems, blurred vision and cognitive impairment.

However, it is commonly mistaken for a viral infection, lupus, Alzheimer’s disease and bipolar disorder.

Coeliac disease

It is an autoimmune disorder marked by an inability to digest gluten, a protein in wheat, rye and barley.

Symptoms can include vomiting, abdominal pain and bloating, diarrhoea, weight loss, anaemia and leg cramps.

However it can be mistaken for irritable bowel syndrome, Crohn’s disease and cystic fibrosis

Chronic fatigue syndrome

The complex disorder has no known cause but symptoms include loss of memory or concentration, a sore throat, painful lymph nodes in neck or armpits, unexplained muscle or joint pain and extreme exhaustion.

It is often confused with sinus problems, hepatitis, fibromyalgia, lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.


It is a chronic inflammatory disease, with symptoms including fatigue, kidney, heart and lung damage, rash and joint pain.

However, it can be mistaken for chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis.

Aortic dissection

This is where a tear develops in the aorta, the largest blood vessel branching from the heart, which causes the inner and middle layers to separate.

Symptoms can include sudden chest or upper back pain, loss of consciousness, shortness of breath, sweating and weak pulse in one arm.

However it can be misdiagnosed as heartburn, heart attack and stroke.